1. S. Bennett, A History of Control Engineering 1800‐1930, Peter Peregrinus Ltd., Stevenage, England, 1979.
2. O. Mayr, The Origins of Feedback Control, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1979.
3. E. Ayres, “An Automatic Chemical Plant,” Scientific American, Vol. 179, No. 3, Sept. 1948.
4. G.S. Brown, D.P. Campbell, and H.T. Marcy, “Instrument Engineering, Its Growth and Its Promise,” Proc. Ann. Meeting ECRC, 1949, pp. 9‐24; also Mech. Eng., Vol. 72, Feb. 1950, pp. 124‐136.
5. M.V. Long and E.G. Holzmann, “Approaching the Control Problem of the Automatic Chemical or Petroleum Plant,” Trans ASME, Vol. 75, No. 7, Oct. 1953, pp. 1373‐1381.
6. A.J. Young, An Introduction to Process Control System Design, Instruments Publishing Company, Pittsburgh, 1955, pp. 341, 366‐370.
7. D.W. Burbeck, E.E. Bolles, W.E. Frady, and E.M. Grabbe, “The Digitac Airborne Computer System,” Proc. Western Joint Computer Conf., 1954, pp. 38‐44.
8. W.L. Exner and A.D. Scarbrough, Broad Band Digital Servo, US Patent 2,932,471, filed Sept. 30, 1954, granted April 12, 1960.
9. Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, Ohio, Process Automation‐Report 1, 1954‐1956, Sept. 1956.
10. D.P. Eckman and I. Lefkowitz, “A Report on Optimizing Control of a Chemical Process,” Control Eng., Vol. 4, No. 9, Sept. 1957, pp. 197‐204.
11. Anonymous, “Computer Explores Real‐Time Process Control,” Control Eng., Vol. 3, No. 10, Oct. 1956, pp. 24‐26.
12. E.W. James et al., “How a Systems Team Engineered a Plant Computer Test,” Control Eng., Vol. 3, No. 11, Nov. 1956, pp. 83‐86.
13. Anonymous, “Automatic Refinery One Step Closer,” Petroleum Week, Dec.21, 1956, pp. 28, 31.
14. L.V. Maurin and J.A. Calvo, “Computing Control at Little Gypsy Generating Station,” ISA J., Vol. 13, No. 5, May 1966, pp. 34‐38.
15. D.F. Taylor, “Solid‐State Computer Automates Power Station Operation,” ISA J., Vol. 5, No. 10, Oct. 1958, pp. 32‐37.
16. Anonymous, “Push‐Button Era Inaugurated,” Oil and Gas J., Vol. 57, Apr.6 1959, p. 78.
17. Anonymous, Business Week, 1959, No. 1544, Apr.4 1959, p. 44.
18. Anonymous, “Computer Control Runs Refinery Unit,” Chem. Eng., Vol. 66, Apr.20 1959, p. 71.
19. Anonymous, “Processing Closes the Automation Loop,” Petroleum Week, Apr. 1959.
20. Anonymous, “Computing Control—A Commercial Reality,” Control Eng., Vol. 6, No. 5, May 1959.
21. Anonymous, “On‐Line Computer Scores High in Big Test,” Chem. Eng., Vol. 66, Oct.19 1959.
22. Anonymous, “Linde Joins Select Group of Award Winners,” Chem. Eng., Vol. 68, No. 26, Dec.25 1961, pp. 34, 36.
23. H.C. Bozeman, “Closed‐Loop Control Is Used on an Ammonia Plant,” Oil and Gas J., Vol. 58, Nov.14 1960, pp. 148‐156.
24. R.D. Eisenhardt and T.J. Williams, “Closed‐Loop Computer Control at Luling,” Control Eng., Vol. 7, No. 11, Nov. 1960, pp. 103‐114.
25. Anonymous, “Electronic Computer Controls Process,” Petroleum Week, Mar.4 1960, pp. 52‐53.
26. H.R. Karp, “Goodrich Eases Into Computing Control,” Control Eng., Vol. 7, No. 4, Apr. 1960.
27. J.M. Madigan, “How the B.F. Goodrich Chemical Company Applies Computer Control,” presented at AIChE Symp., Chicago, Feb. 1960.
28. J.M. Madigan, “Computer Controlled Processing,” Chem. Eng. Prog., Vol. 56, No. 5, May 1960, pp. 63‐67.
29. Anonymous, “Digital Computer To Automate Cement Rock Crushing, Blending,” Pit and Quarry, Vol. 44, No. 1, Jan. 1959.
30. Anonymous, “Closed‐Loop Control of Cement Kiln Boosts Output and Improves Product,” Chem. Eng., Vol. 69, July9 1962, p. 73.
31. P.B. Nalle and L.W. Weeks, “The Digital Computer—Applications in Mining and Process Control,” Mining Eng., Vol. 12, Sept. 1960, pp. 1001‐1004.
32. J.M. Sauer, L.W. Weeks, P.J. Fleeman, and V.A. Kaise, “Riverside Puts Kiln Under Closed‐Loop Control,” Pit and Quarry, Vol. 55, No. 1, July 1962, pp. 152‐166.
33. L.W. Weeks, “Magic Memory Solves Raw Mix Problems,” Rock Products, Vol. 63, No. 4, Apr. 1960.
34. C.K. Hines and J.K. Walker, “Computer‐Controlled Pilot Plant,” Instrum. and Autom., Vol. 31, Oct. 1958, pp. 1688‐1689.
35. Anonymous, “Computer Control Due Test This Year,” Oil and Gas J., Vol. 57, Apr.13 1959, pp. 72‐73.
36. Anonymous, “Computer‐Logger Eases Gas Dispatching Job,” Control Eng., Vol. 6, No. 6, June 1959, pp. 23‐26.
37. G.L. Farrar, “World’s Biggest Crude Unit Nears Computer Control,” Oil and Gas J., Vol. 58, Nov.14 1960, pp. 143‐147.
38. G.L. Farrar, “Computer Controls Big Cat Cracker,” Oil and Gas J., Vol. 58, Dec.5 1960, p. 139.
39. G.L. Farrar, “Computer Ups Ethylene Plant Throughput,” Oil and Gas J., Vol. 58, May 2 1960, p. 139.
40. J.R. Parsons, E.D. Tolin, and A.J. Andrews, “Controlling a Thermal Cracking Furnace with a Digital Computer,” Control Eng., Vol. 7, No. 9, Sept. 1960, pp. 150‐153.
41. A. Freilich, “What’s Doing in Computer Control,” ISA J., Vol. 8, No. 9, Sept. 1961, pp. 49‐53.
42. T.J. Williams, “Studying the Economics of Process Computer Control,” ISA J., Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan. 1961, pp. 50‐59.
43. Anonymous, “Process Control,” The Economist, Vol. 198, Mar.25 1961, London, pp. 1219‐1220.
44. A.L. Giusti, R.E. Otto, and T.J. Williams, “Direct Digital Computer Control,” Control Eng., Vol. 9, No. 6, June 1962, pp. 104‐108.
45. D.P. Eckman, A. Bublitz, and E. Holben, “A Satellite Computer for Process Control,” ISA J., Vol. 9, No. 11, Nov. 1962, pp. 57‐64.
46. E.W. Yetter and C.W. Sanders, “A Time‐Shared Digital Process Control System,” ISA J., Vol. 9, No. 11, Nov. 1962, pp. 53‐56.
47. Users Workshop on Direct Digital Control; in addition to the distribution of documents at the time by ISA, the publications of the meetings of this workshop have been collected in the book Progress in Direct Digital Control, T.J. Williams and F.M. Ryan, eds., published by the Instrument Society of America, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1969.
48. P.D. Griem, “Direct Digital Control of a Glass Furnace,” 20th Ann. ISA Instrument‐Automation Conf. and Exhibit, paper 5.3‐2‐65, Los Angeles, Calif., Oct.4‐7, 1965.
49. R.G. Bruce and R.J. Fanning, “How Direct Digital Control Works,” Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 43, No. 12, Dec. 1964, pp. 83‐86.
50. J.W. Bernard and J.W. Wujkowski, “Direct Digital Control Experiences in a Chemical Process,” ISA J., Vol. 12, No. 12, Dec. 1965 pp. 43‐47.
51. J.L. Kern, “The Computer‐Operator Interface,” Control Eng., Vol. 13, No. 9, Sept. 1966 pp. 114‐118.
52. J.R. Middleton, “Chocolate Bayou Instrument and Computer System,” Proc. 1963 Symp. Instrumentation for the Process Industries, Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex., Jan. 1963, pp. 83‐90.
53. V.A. Lauher, Display System, US Patent 3,474,438, issued Oct. 1, 1969, assigned to Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Mo.
54. V.A. Lauher, D.W. Weinrich, and R.K. Underwood, “CRT Control Center for a Multi‐loop Process,” Instrum. Technol., Vol. 17, No. 9, Sept. 1970, pp. 33‐38.
55. M.J. Larsen and G.L. Glahn, “A User‐Designed Operator Console,” Instrum. Technol., Vol. 15, No. 4, Apr. 1968, pp. 45‐51.
56. R.S. Crowder, “CRT Interfaces for a Continuous Plant,” Instrum. Technol., Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan. 1971, pp. 58‐62.
57. J.M. Madigan, “On‐Line Computer Control of Chemical Processes,” Data‐Processing Today: A Progress Report, Management Report, No. 46, American Management Assn. Inc. New York, N.Y., 1960, pp. 76‐86.
58. M. Phister Jr., “How Computers Will Help Steelmakers,” Steel, Vol. 143, No. 19, 1958, p. 126.
59. T.J. Williams, R.C. Johnson, and A. Rose, “Computations in the Field of Engineering Chemistry,” J. Assoc. Comput. Mach., Vol. 4, No. 4, Oct. 1957, pp. 393‐419.
60. V.A. Lauher, J.R. Middleton, and T.J. Williams, “The Coordinated Multi‐Computer System for Monsanto’s Chocolate Bayou Plant,” Digital Computer Applications to Process Control, W.E. Miller ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1965, pp. 25‐54.
61. N.W. Gaines et al., “Integrated Multi‐Computer Process Control,” ISA paper 6.5‐3‐66, New York, Oct.27, 1966.
62. R.G. Massey and S.E. Herson, “Three Interlocked Computers to Run New British Steel Works,” Control Eng., Vol. 9, No. 6, June 1962, pp. 128‐132.
63. Y. Iida and M. Ogawa, “Interesting Computer Control System for the Steelmaking Plant at the Mizushima Works,” Computer Applications in the Steel Industry, in G.D. Surguchov ed., Int’l Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, May9‐11, 1977, pp. 125‐144.
64. T. Isobe, “Automatic Control of Iron and Steel Industry,” Automatica, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan. 1970 pp. 111‐121.
65. I. Lefkowitz and A. Cheliustkin eds., , Integrated Systems Control in the Steel Industry State of the Art Review and Conf. Proc., Laxenburg, Austria, June 30‐July 2, 1975, Int’l Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Dec. 1976.
66. T. Toyoda and H. Tokuyama, “TOPS: Total On‐Line Production Control System for the Kashima Steel Works,” Computer Applications in the Steel Industry, in G.D. Surguchov ed., Int’l Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, May 9‐11, 1977, pp. 211‐227.
67. H. Tokuyama, T. Takawa, N. Aoki, and K. Katoogi, “The Computer Control System at the Wakayama Steel Works,” Computer Applications in the Steel Industry, in G.D. Surguchov ed., Int’l Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, May 9‐11, 1977, pp. 145‐176.
68. B. Pettersson, “Optimal Production Schemes Coordinating Subprocesses in a Complex Integrated Pulp and Paper Mill,” Pulp Paper Mag. of Can, Vol. 71, No. 5, 1970.
69. O. Alsholm and L. Hagland, “Computer Network for Process Control and Production Coordination of a Big Integrated Pulp and Paper Mill,” Preprints 1977 Int’l Symp. Process Control, C.P.P.A., Vancouver, 1977.
70. S.G. Edlund and K. Johansson, “Experiences with a Multiple Unit Production Control System for the Optimization of Mill Operation,” Preprints 1977 Int’l Symp. Process Control, C.P.P.A., Vancouver, 1977.